Volume 16, Issue 3, Summer 2021, Page 1-27


Effect of Pomegranate Peel Extract on the Production of Some Enzymes in Proteus spp Isolated from Different Clinical Samples in Kirkuk city.

Salah salman Zain Alabdeen; Banan H. Ahmed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2021, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2021.169993

The study investigates the effects of pomegranate peel extracts on some virulence factors such as the production of some enzymes produced by Proteus spp isolated from different clinical samples. Among 310 different clinical samples, 48 isolates of proteus were obtained, 14 isolates (29.16%) were obtained from urine, 15 isolates (31.25%) were obtained from stool, 7 isolates (14.58%) from ear swabs, 4 isolates (8.33%) were obtained from wounds, 5 isolates (10.41% (from burns and 3 isolates) 6.25%) of the high cervical. The study showed that from 48 isolates of Proteus spp 25 isolates (52.08 %) identified as  P.mirabilis, 15 isolates (31.25% )of P. penerri, while 8 isolates of P. vulgaris were obtained with a percentage of (16.66%) and it was found that 18 isolates (72%) of P.mirabilis isolates were positive for the production of beta-lactamase enzyme, 24 isolates (96%) are positive for proteases and 14 isolates (56%) produced lipase, while 13 isolates from P. penerri (86.66%) produced beta-lactamases and proteases and 10 isolates (66.66%) produced lipase, also found that 5 isolates (62.5%) of P. vulgaris produced Beta-lactamase and all the isolates (100%) produced protease while 7 isolates (87.5%) produced lipase. It was found that the hot aqueous extract of pomegranate peels inhibited the production of beta-lactamase enzyme in 4 out of 7 isolates that produced this enzyme, while all tested isolates did not produce lipase by using extracts of pomegranate peel extracts. The isolates lost their ability to produce protease enzyme, except for two isolates that were not affected by extracts of pomegranate peel fruits.

Maximum Track length Approach for Estimation of Bulk Etch Rate of CR-39 Detector by Means of Track Diameter-Length Correlation

Saeed Hassan Saeed; Abrar Qasim Mustafa

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2021, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 12-18
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2021.169997

In this paper, we use maximum track length  approach depending on track diameter-length (D-L) correlation as another way to estimate  directly from empirical measurements of the track diameters or lengths without resorting to other methods. The lengths of the tracks have been extracted using the (D-L) correlation which relied on the measurement of the opening’s diameter of the etched tracks, in addition to using the Track-Test program . 241Am (1μCi) source was used to irradiate the plastic detector CR-39 with alpha particles of energies of (3.5-5.3) MeV by means of normal incidence. The irradiated detectors were treated by a chemical etchant for distinct intervals of time using an aqueous NaOH solution of 6 N preserved at temperature (70±1) . An empirical formula was applied to calculate . The formula relies on two parameters, the maximum length of the track  and its saturation time . We have seen that the magnitude of  is equal to 1.407 , which can be regarded as compatible with the values indicated by others using different methods. It has been noticed that the maximum length of the etched tracks is directly proportional to alpha energy while exponentially to saturation time of the length.

The Effect of Sunspots Number on Critical frequencies foF2 For the Ionospheric Layer-F2 Over Kirkuk City During the Ascending Phase of Solar Cycle 24

Elaf Farhad Bakr; Wafaa Hasan Zaki; jawdet hedayet Mohammed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2021, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 19-27
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2021.170001

           The study of the F2-layer properties and the critical frequency(foF2) is necessary to understand the dynamic features and thus more accurately predict the behavior of the F layer, and this research aims to find the relationship (correlation) and interdependence between the critical frequency (foF2) of Ionospheric layer F2 and Sunspot number. In this study the characteristics and behavior of F2 layer during Solar cycle 24 were studied, the effect of Sunspots number (Ri) on the critical frequency (foF2), were investigated for the years (2012, 2013, 2014) which represents the ascending phase and 2014 represent the peak phase of the solar cycle 24 over Kirkuk city (35° N, 44° E) by finding the critical frequency (foF2) values, the layer’ s impression times are determined for the days of solstice as well as equinox, where the solar activity was examined for the days of the winter and summer solstice and the days of the spring and autumn equinoxes for a period of 24 hours by applied the International Reference Ionosphere model IRI (2016). The output data for foF2 were verified by using the IRI-Ne- Quick option by specifying the time, date and Sunspot number parameters. Statistical analysis was caried out through the application of the Minitab (version 2018) in order to find the correlation between the critical frequency (foF2) of Ionospheric layer F2 and Sunspot number. It was concluded that the correlation is strong and positive, this indicate that critical frequency (foF2) increase with increasing Sunspots number (Ri) for solar cycle 24.