Volume 15, Issue 1, Winter 2020


The Effect of Sunspots Number on the Total Electron Content (TEC) of the Ionospheric Layer E Over Kirkuk Station for Solar Cycle 24

Wafaa Zaki; Rwziah Mahmood Mohammed; Jawdet Hidayat

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2020, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 1-17
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2020.15.1.1

In this work, the effect of sunspots number (Ri) on the Total electronic content (TEC) were studied for the years (2008, 2014, 2018) which represents the rising phase, the peak and the down phase of the solar cycle 24 over Kirkuk station in Iraq at latitude 35° North and longitude 44° East, by finding the TEC values for the E – layer, the layer’s impression times are determined for the days of solstice and equinox. In this study the International Reference Ionosphere program (IRI) program have been applied to find the values of TEC which provided by the space research committee (COSPAR) and International Union of Radio Sciences (URSI), IRI have three upper side electron density options. The accuracy of this study was verified by the application conducted of the university of Hacettepe in Ankara, Turkey by matching the reading of TEC from Global Position System (GPS) with output data of TEC from the IRI for Ankara station which located at (39.7 N;32.76 E). And from this investigation turns out that the output data from the option IRI2001 was more consistent with reading of the GPS, than the rest of the other options. From this study by using the statistical program Minitab version 2018. There is a strong correlation between the Total Electron Content (TEC) of Ionospheric layer E and Sunspot number for solar cycle 24.

Two Stage Text Encryption Using a Private Table of the Sumerian System

Elham Hassan Aziz

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2020, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 18-33
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2020.15.1.2

The massive use of the internet in our contemporary life relates to the increase of the exchange of information through the Internet networks. Due to the importance of the information and to preserve its confidentiality, it protects using theories as well as strategies from attack or abuse. The aim of the research is to design an algorithm to encrypt text symbols to understandable symbols using private table that contains representation of ASCII of English characters with their suitable Sumerian system numbers. Each letter of the text is converted to ASCII code then encoded as an image using the private table, After that these images are combined together and saved as a new image as a Sumerian image. This image is encrypted first with unintelligible key image that is generated from three external key’s (kr, kg, and kb) to be the first stage encryption image. Then the second stage image generates from encrypting the first stage image with another input key image using XOR function which increases image security. The proposed algorithm gives double stage encryption and high degree of security level because of using Sumerian system and using different keys and security methods. Through using the histograms on all tested images, the result image demonstrate the efficiency of the system visually.

Assessment of Levels of Elements Concentrations (Pb, As, Cr) in Groundwater and its Environmental Impacts in the Yaychi Region, Kirkuk / Northern Iraq

Dunya N. Hasseb; Hassan A. Al-Jumaily

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2020, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 34-52
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2020.15.1.3

The present study aims to assess the pollution of groundwater with toxic heavy elements and their carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects on health in the study area. For this purpose, 5 samples of groundwater wells were taken and analyzed for their content of the elements (Pb, As, Cr) using the ICP-MS device in the ACME laboratory in Vancouver / Canada. The results of these five wells showed that their concentrations rates increased according to the following order Pb> Cr> As, as they reached 45.34, 11.8, and 0.74 µg l-1, respectively, and the lead, arsenic and chromium levels in the five samples were within the permitted ranges according to FAO standards, the spatial distribution of the three elements showed that the lead concentration in groundwater was high in the eastern regions, which may be due to the impact of vehicle emissions and agricultural activities, while arsenic and chromium concentrations were high in the central and southwestern regions of the study area, which may be attributed to the effects of agricultural and industrial activities. And it was found by applying the indicators of heavy elements pollution (MI, HPI) and health risk factors that the five wells under study are not contaminated to low pollution with these elements respectively, and do not pose any carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks to the population of the study area of adults and children through skin contact pathway.

Improvement of the Efficiency of the Fungicide Dithane M-45 By the Use of the Polysaccharide for the Control of Fungi Causing Damping off of Okra (Ablelmoschus Esculentus L)

Doha Ismaeel Ibraheem

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2020, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 53-67
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2020.15.1.4

Laboratory tests of three fungicides, dithane M-45 (mancozeb), captan 50 and rhizolexwith four concentrations each 0.0, 50, 100 and 200 mg active inegradient/l of Potato DextroseAgar (PDA) medium on the growth of fungi Macrophomina phasealina 2 isolates of Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agents of damping off and root rot ofokra, Dithane M-45 showed high inhibition (100%) effect for the mycelial growth of pathogenic fungi at 100 mg a.c/l PDA. Treating okra (Ablelmoschus esculentus) seeds (localcultivar) by various concentrations of dithane M-45 (0.0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0) gm/kg seeds withthe microbial polysaccharide produced by the fungus Alternaria alternata or Arabic gum (5gm/l distilled water) was superior than the fungicide alone through all the treatments incausing significant decrease in % infection and disease severity of the seeding damping offdisease at conc. 3 gm/kg seeds with the polysaccharide which gave 4 %, 5.33 % and 0.07respectively and 8.7 %, 10.0 % and 0.15 with the arabic gum respectively. There were nosignificant differences noticed between the treatment of the seeds with the polysaccharidewith the arabic gum in reducing% infection and disease severity of the disease. Also, it causedsignificant increase in the length of shoot and root systems and dry weight of the plants whichreached 16.33 cm, 6.04 cm and 0.0204 gm at 3 gm/kg seeds with the polysaccharide and13.91 cm, 4,99 cm and 0.144 gm for arabic gum respectively as compared with the treatmentby the fungicide dithane M-45 alone (without sticking material) which gave 11.95 cm, 3.95cm and 0.124 gm respectively.

Assessment of Suitability of Injana Formation Sandstone for Building and Railway Ballast Stone in Shirqat District Sallahaddin Government- Iraq

Mohanad Essa Khder; Loay Musa Rawe; Hasnaa Salah Khalaf

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2020, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 68-84
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2020.15.1.5

This study aims the validity of INJANA sandstone formation rocks exposed in the Sallahaddin government / shirqat district for building purposes and railway ballast stone. The study including sampling from three stations and prepared samples for laboratory tests which revealed that values of unconfined compressive strength, flexural strength, density, absorption and mechanical absorption ranges between (7.97-12.28) MPa, (3.71-4.74) MPa, (1.75-1.82) gm/cm3 , (1.13-1.16) %, and (82.3-89.2) % , respectively.The geotechnical test shows that the sandstone rocks are not suitable for dimensions stone purposes expected station (1) according to (ASTM, C-568-99,2004) and not suitable for railway ballast stone purposes according to (O.R.B.D 1999 Raymond1979).