Volume 14, Issue 1, Winter 2019, Page 1-251


Determination the Time of Toxoplasmosis among Pregnant Women by using IgG Avidity to Various Toxoplasma Gondii Antigens

Sanarya Kamal Tawfiq; Zainab Sulaiman Rezaig; Mohemid M. Al- Jebouri

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.1.1

Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which is an intracellular protozoan parasite. Its main host is the cat. It is one of the most common human parasites. The main objective of this study is to determine the time of T. gondii infection among pregnant women by using avidity test of Toxoplasma IgG to various Toxoplasma antigens. The study period was from August 2017 to February 2018 to study the time of toxoplasmosis among 180 pregnant women and 100 non pregnant married women as control attending to hospitals, primary health care centers and some private medical laboratories. The pregnant women were examined for Toxo-IgG seroprevalence by using ELISA technique, and then examined their avidity of antibodies for specific Toxoplasma antigens by using line immune assay. The rates of Toxo-IgG seropositive were64 (35.56 %) among pregnant women. Regarding the reactivity of determined Toxo-IgG against various Toxoplasma antigens, the rates were 40(62.50%), 39 (60.93%), 63(98.43%) ,55(85.93%) ,63(98.43%), 62(96.87%) ,41(64.04%) and 42(65.62) positive for Toxoplasma ROP1C, MIC3, GRA7, GRA8, p30, MAG1,GRA1,rSAG1 antigens, respectively. Considering the avidity of Toxo-IgG for these antigens, the rates of high avidity were higher than low and intermediate avidity. So, the highest rate of high avidity was 85.0% for ROP1c antigen. It is concluded that the highest rate of predicting Toxoplasma infection among pregnant women was for a period of more than 6 months, which makes it less dangerous for maternal and fetal health..

Molecular Evaluation of Viral load and Genotype of HCV in Acute and Chronic HCV Patients in Kirkuk City

Israa Hashim Saadoon; Thekra A. Hamada; Muhannad Abdulla Alazzawy

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 13-22
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.1.2

The study aimed at detection of HCV load and genotypes in acute and chronic HCV patients. A cross sectional study was carried out in Kirkuk city from 15th of March 2017 to 15th of November 2017. The number of hepatitis patient understudy were 62 hepatitis C (27 acute and 35 chronic) whose ages were between 20-75 years old. These patients admitted to Hepatology and Gastroenterology centers of Kirkuk. The control group who were matched to the patients studied, included 30 individuals who admitted to blood bank for blood donation.
The study showed that no statistical differences between acute and chronic HCV concerning their viral load and the highest viral load mean was found in acute HCV patients (1162.6 v.s 1234.3) IU/ml. In the current study, the high rates of chronic and acute HCV patients were infected by genotype 4 of HCV (68.69% and 63.63% respectively) and the lowest rate were genotype 1a. The study showed that there was a highly significant difference between viral loads of acute and chronic HCV patients as regarding genotype 1a (1298.7 v.s. 1155.4 IU/ml), ( P: 0.001), the study showed a significant difference between viral loads of acute and chronic HCV patients concerning genotype 4 and a significant relation of viral loads of acute HCV infection with genotype 1a and genotype 4. It was concluded that the was no difference HCV load in acute and chronic infection and genotype 4 as the most frequent HCV genotype in Kirkuk

Evaluation of Ribonuclease (RNAse) Activity in the Sera of Women with Breast Tumor.

Basma F. Tawfeq; Kdiar A. Kdiar; Sabah H. Kurshid

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 23-33
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.1.3

In this study 125 patients with breast tumors (61 patients with benign breast tumors, 64 patients with malignant breast tumors) with age range between (20-75) years collected from Center of Early Detection of Breast Cancer in Azady Teaching Hospital in Kirkuk City from November 2016 to end of May 2018 and matched with 50 healthy women as control group. Serum RNAse activity and total protein (albumin, globulin) concentration were estimated in all patients (benign and malignant) and compared to control group.
The present observational study has shown a significant elevation in serum RNAase activity in cases of breast carcinoma and benign breast lesions as compared to control, which can use RNAse as tumor marker for breast tumor.
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Design and Implementation of Home Security System Using Zigbee and Arduino Controller With Sensors

Mohammed F. Abdulqader

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 34-55
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.1.4

The purpose of this research is to design a home security system using Zigbee and Arduino controllers with number of sensors. The security system is widely used at home, institutes and factories. Zigbee is a communication protocol which is based on “IEEE 802.15.4 standard”. The physical and medium access control layers are defined by this standard. Three communication topology type are supported by Zigbee; they are: mesh, star and tree. Zigbee technology is characterized as having a low data rate, low power consumption and low cost. Arduino platform has good specifications, cheap, easy to use and wide varieties of shields have been emerged with many different purposes such as; Ethernet and GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) support available.
This study utilizes motion, gas and temperature sensors as the end device for detecting any intruder, gas or fire. Two Zigbee devices are used; one of them is used as a transmitter and the other as a receiver. Receiver coupled to the Arduino UNO and connected by wire to a computer to show the output using graphical user interface; also, Arduino Uno is connected to a bluetooth module to show the output on a smart phone.
The results show that the designed system can send and receive data up to 100 meters of distance between Zigbee sides (receiver – transmitter). The home security system using Zigbee and Arduino controllers with sensors has been successfully designed and implemented.
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Detection of Candida spp. in Children with Diarrhea in Kirkuk Province

Thekra A. Hamada; Israa Hashim Saadoon; Nasreen Ghafoor Muhamad Ameen

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 56-66
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.1.5

The study aims at evaluating the relation of Candida spp. with diarrhea in children. A cross sectional study was carried out in Kirkuk city from 15th of January 2017 to 15th of June 2017. The number of patients under study were 120 children between 1 day to 12 years old. These patients admitted to Pediatric Hospital of Kirkuk. The control group who were matched to the patients studied, included 60 apparently healthy children and their ages were between 1 day to 12 years old.
The study showed that the highest rate of Candida spp. was found in children with diarrhea comparing with the control (93.33% vs. 11.6%) with highly significant relation. In view of mixed infection of Candida spp., Table 2 shows that the highest rate of Candida spp. was C. albicans (26.57%) followed by 21.43% as C. tropicalis and the lowest rate was C. kafyr (6.25%) while the mixed infection by the four types recorded 30.36%. The highest rate of mixed Candida spp. infection with found in children who were infected with C. albicans with C. tropicalis (23.53%), followed by 17.65% with C. albicans and C. kyrosi (Table 3). Table 4 shows that the highest rates of Candida spp. found in patients who belonged to the age group 1-> 6 years (49.11%) while the lowest rates of Candida spp. infections occurred in age group 6-12 years. Candida spp. infection occurred more frequently in patients from rural areas than those from urban areas. It was concluded that Candida spp. was a highly related with diarrhea in children and Candida albicans was the most isolated species.
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An experimental investigation of Impact of ZrO2 nanoparticles in DI engine performance

Adel Sharif Hamadi; Hayder Abed Dhahad; Ali Ghufran Khidhir

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 67-85
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.1.6

Many investigators have examined the effluent of different types of nanoparticles on emission characteristics and performance of diesel engine but most of the present studies have been concentrated only diesel or biodiesel that contain dispersed nanoparticle. In the present work, water in diesel Nano-emulsified fuel was prepared by high speed rotor-stator homogenizer, and then addition of (50ppm, 100ppm, 150ppm) Zirconium oxide ZrO2nanoparticle blended water-diesel nanoemulsion (WiDNE). The objective of this project is to evaluate the effect of ZrO2 nanoparticles on combustion characteristics and engine performance. Direct injection (DI), water cooled four cylinders, in-line, natural aspirated Fiat diesel engine was used and run at a constant speed (1500 rpm) and constant fuel injection pressure (400 bars) with varying the operation load. The concentration of the emission gases such as NOx, unburned total hydrocarbon HC, CO and CO2 was measured by Multigas analyzer model 4880. The engine exhaust smoke emissions were measured using the AVL-415 smoke meter. The experimental results notified that WiDNE+ZrO2 fuel imposes the capability to enhance fuel properties, improve the engine efficiency as well as reduction in the emissions concentrations of exhaust gas..

Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetite Nanoparticles and the Effect of [Fe(sac)2(H2O)4].2H2O complex on its magnetic properties

Ahmed Raoof; Mustafa A. Alheety; Luma Jassim; Anwar Adil

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 86-96
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.1.7

A novel inorganic complex (shell)@metal oxide (core) was demonstrated by simple and highly efficient synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4NPs) coated by [Fe(sac)2(H2O)4] .2H2O complex through one-pot reaction of prepared Fe3O4 nanoparticles and [Fe(sac)2(H2O)4].2H2O. The Fe3O4 NPs structure was characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-rays (EDX) while the resulted [Fe(sac)4(H2O)2]@Fe3O4NPs was characterized using IR spectroscopy and XRD. The magnetic feature, which is one of physical properties of Fe3O4NPs and the newly synthesized core-shell [Fe(sac)2(H2O)4]@Fe3O4NPs were examined in order to study how the Fe in its complex effects on the magnetic properties of magnetite nanoparticles.

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Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Some Azo and Azo-Schiff Compounds

Hadi N. Azeez; Ahmed A. H. Al-kadhimi; Nashwan O. Tapabashi

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 97-119
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.1.8

Abstract
This work involves the preparation of some new azo and azo-Schiff compounds derived from benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, and diamines (1, 5-diaminonaphthalene, and thiocarbohydrazide). Azo compounds of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene have been prepared using different solvents to enhance the miscibility of the polar aqueous solution of the diazonium salt and the slightly polar benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene. The Schiff’s bases have been synthesized by the condensation reaction of carbonyl compound with the diamines. FT-IR has been used to identify the prepared compounds, whereas 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR were used to identify some others.
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Hydrogeological Characteristics of the Aquifer in Shwan Sub-Basin, Kirkuk Iraq

Omer S. Ibrahiem Al –Tamimi; Juma'a K. Mohammad Al – Shwani

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 120-140
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.1.9

This study includes determining the hydrogeological setting of the aquifer in the study area including groundwater measurement direction and the hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer. The study showed the existence of a shallow aquifer (unconfined) in the Quaternary deposits with presence of confined aquifer in the Bai-Hasan Formation. The construction of flow net showed that the groundwater flow is from the northeast to southwest (middle parts) of the study area and then to northwest towards the Lesser Zab River. The information of six wells three of them with observation well shows that the values of the transmissivity (T), hydraulic conductivity (K), Storage Coefficient (S) and specific capacity (SC) were ranged from (12.048 to 158.559 m3/day/m), (0.0848 to 4.545 m/d), (2.1 × 10-4 - 4.67 × 10-3) and (21. 6 to 166.956 m3/d/m) respectively, where (T) and (K) calculated by using (Aquifer Win program) software that depend on the methods of Cooper-Jacob and Theis recovery for analysis these information. The saturated thickness values for each wells collected from bank information of General Commission for Groundwater Kirkuk branch is ranged between (33 – 142) m. The aim of the research is to calculate the hydraulic characteristics and the flow direction, as well as the renewable and constant storage and the distance between the drilling wells in the study area..

Field Tests for Generating Source System and Picking the Seismic Shear Waves to Meet the Engineering Purposes Requirements.

Muhana M. Ahmed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 141-154
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.1.10

Many seismic field tests were carried for the designed and modified seismic apparatuses using to generate seismic shear waves. These apparatus includes: "wooden plank" horizontal traction shear wave source, and a modified geophone for picking the SH-Wave generated by the above source. A twetha site (SE Baghdad) was choosed to carry out the field tests and the results of seismic horizontal & vertical shear waves (SH & SV - waves ) besides the p-wave were encouraged, which can be used for deriving the designed and elastic parameters of any site selection projects.

The Ability to Using the Natural Aggregates of quaternary Deposits for the Lower Zab River Terraces at Alton Cobri - Kirkuk Governorate / Concrete Works.

Raad Jalal Fathi

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 155-174
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.1.11

This research included the ability to using the natural aggregates of quaternary deposits for the Lower Zab River terraces at Alton Cobri-Kirkuk Governorate / Concrete Works. The results of the engineering and laboratory tests of the natural aggregates and the return, which are geologically belonging to Quaternary deposits sediments showed that they are suitable for use in concrete work and investment for the establishment of suitable quarries in order to conform to the Iraqi and international standards. The rough and comprehensive aggregates with a maximum size of 40 mm can be used for natural aggregation immediately after washing and screening of concrete after increasing the ratio of fine aggregates to rough aggregates during the concrete mix process. As for aggregates The back of a more general gradation of the requirements of the limits of the gradient medium and soft global British standard specification and the marked increase in the size of 0.3 mm sieve match attribute to washing the exposed natural aggregates due to sites and models aligned to the River Zab down operations. works after increasing the ratio of fine aggregates to rough aggregates during the concrete mix process..

A Study Of Changes In The Lipid Profile, Malondialdehyd And Superoxide Desmutase In Normal Pregnancy

Mozeiyan Fadhly Namik; Muniif Saab Al-Janaby; Sahla Khorshid Abbas

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 175-191
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.1.12

The study included (120) pregnancies during the months and the trimesters of pregnancy: first trimester, second trimester and third trimester conducted in Aljmhwry Republican hospital and Al- salaam Health center / Kirkuk with (20) (non-pregnant) women whom served as control, and (20) as postpartum 1n the age (18-40) years. the study was carried out from 1/3/2016 –5/3/2017.
The aim of this study to evaluate the serum levels of lipid profile (TC,TG,HDL and LDL), malondialdehyde (MDA) as an oxidative stress marker and superoxide dismutase as an antioxidant enzyme during pregnancy period and post-partum. The results showed a significant differentes in lipid profile and a significant increase in MDA during the months and the trimesters of pregnancy, while there was a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity during pregnancy and in postpartum in comparison with those of control group.
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Sedimentological Study of Dokan Conglomerate in Kalakan Anicline / NE Iraq

Ali H. Dohan; Sawsan H. Al-Hazaa

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 192-204
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.1.13

A sedimentological characteristics of Dokan conglomerate was studied in Sulaymaniyah Governorate specifically in the Dokan region in northeastern Iraq. The study deals with four sections representing the study area; are Kani Watmman, KaniZard, Mewzha and Baloka sections. The conglomerate consist in all the sections from successive cycles of Clasts and fining upward. The thickness of each cycle ranges from a few to tens of meters. Dokan conglomerate is deposited above the Tangerio Formation in the KaneWatman and Kane Zerd sections, and on the Kometan Formation in Mewzha section and Baloka section. The contact betweenthe Formations is angular unconformity surface. The thickness of the sections in the study area are (350 m) in kani watman section, (220m) in KaniZard, (12m) in Mewzha section and (10 m) in Baloka section. The Dokan Conglomerate were divided into four Facies depending on the field rock characteristics such as color, hardness, granular size, sorting, sedimentary structures, and supported ratio, whether its supported by clast or matrix, it is composed sand stone, mudstone, orthoconglomerate and paraconglomerate lithofacies. The sedimentary environment of the area was derived using Facies analysis Which represent deposition in Alluvial Fan. This Alluvial Fan was divided into three zons, The First zone represents the nearest to the base of fan (proximal), Composed of bimodal orthoconglomerate depostes. The second zone represents the middle of fan, composed of sets of sedimentary structures such as river with channels imbricated gravel which referes to the paleocurrent direction. The third zone which is the farest from the base of the fan and consists of bolymodal conglomerate and lenses sanstone..

An Experimental Study on the Bubble Column Performance of Two Phases

Moayad Khalil Salih

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 205-223
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.1.14

Bubble columns are form commend industrial instruments which is widely used in factorial petrochemical and biochemical aspects especially in absorption and reactions between gas and the liquid. The study aimed to study the effects of both the superficial gas velocity for ranges (15- 2.24) ×〖10〗^(-2) m /s and pressure ranges for (0.5-2) kg/ cm2 and diameter holes (1,2,2.5) mm in gas distributor from perforated plate for electrolytic solutions (0.05 N NaCl, 0.02 N CaCl2, 0.1 N Na2SO4 ) to volume percentage for holden gas in solution and mass transfer coefficient ratio. The experimental device was used on the bubble column length (2m) diameter (0.2) m and thickness (0.01) m.
The study result show that high volumetric percent at concentration (0.02 N CaCl2 ) was (7.65) due to its dependence on superficial gas velocity while the higher volume holdup gas in solution at concentration( 0.05 N Nacl) was (7.96) because of higher pressure which cause in decreasing the mass transfer coefficient ratio which is increase with the gas superficial surface in solution at concentration level ( 0.1 N Na2SO4 ) and the is occur due to bubble volume is higher when pressure increase.
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Biostratigraphy of Kometan Formation in Khashab Well-1, Hamrin Area, Northeastern Iraq.

Aokab A. AL-jubory; Majid M. AL-Mutwali

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 224-240
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.1.15

The present study deals with biostratigraphy of the Kometan from the subsurface section of Khashab well No.1, Hamrin area Northeastern Iraq. Lithologically, the studied Kometan Formation are divided into three units. The studied sequences characterized by different ratios of planktonic and benthonic foraminiferal assemblages. Forty eight planktonic species belonging to fifteen genera and 23 benthonic species belonging to fifteen genera have been recognized.
Four biozones are recognized based on the stratigraphic distribution of the planktonic foraminiferal assemblages are recognized within the studied Kometan Formation representing an age ranging from Late Turonian-Santonian.These zones are as following from oldest-youngest:
1- Marginotruncana sigali Partial range Zone (Part) (Late Turonian).
2- Dicarinella primitiva Interval Zone (Early and Middle Coniacian).
3- Dicarinella concavata Interval Zone (Late Coniacian-Early Santonian).
4- Dicarinella asymetrica Total rang Zone (Santonian).
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1- Marginotruncana sigali Partial- range Zone. (Part) (Late Turonian).
2- Dicarinella primitiva Interval Zone (Early of Middle Coniacian).
3- Dicarinella concavata Interval Zone (Late Coniacian- Early Santonian).
4- Dicarinella asymetricaTotal-range Zone (Santonian).

Study of the Thermal Insulation Properties of the Compressed Earth Block Stabilized with Gypsum

Lizan Ahmed Salih Zangana; Aomed Ahmed Mohammed Tokmachy

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2019, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 241-251
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2019.14.1.16

One of the innovative ways that has been widely used in the last few decades is the production of compressed stabilized earth block with low cost and environmentally friendly. The current study aimed to study the geotechnical specification's for compressed stabilized earth block that were produced from earth materials for deposits of injana formation which were gathered from three different locations near Kirkuk governorate. A mix of soil samples were prepared in order to make a good soil mixture of 82% of sand and 17.43% of fine materials that include each of clay and silt to manufacture and produce compressed earth block. Then 15% of Paris plaster was added to the prepared soil mixture for the compressed stabilized earth block production, and then the wet soil mixture manually blended and compacted by manual press which is globally known as CINVA-RAM exerting high pressure by 17.2 MPA to produce all soil block samples. Then the blocks were cured naturally at room temperature for 28 days in order to undergo thermal insulation test. Based on the results it was concluded there is a close relationship between each of moisture content and the ability of thermal conduction for each block, in the sense that as it quickly loss water as the thermal insulation decrease and as it slowly loss water the thermal insulation increase, were the less value (0.005 W/Mk) of thermal conduction is recorded in block samples produced from the mixture soil which in turn is inversely proportional with thermal insulation. .