Volume 13, Issue 4, Autumn 2018, Page 1-278


Evaluating Therapeutic Characteristics of Anticancer L -Glutaminase Enzyme on Ethylenimine Induced Mutagens in Rats.

Gulbahar F. Karim; Karkaz M. Thalij

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.13.4.1

This study include, the partial purification of L-glutaminase enzyme from E.coli by ammonium sulphate precipitation (40%-80%) fractions, and the enzyme activity elevated to 75 IU/ml following dialysis. Pharmacological evaluation of L-glutaminase enzyme was used for the in vivo studies on sixty rats as an animal models. The hematological parameters for rats in the treated group (T2) showed significant changes at the level (P<0.05) when compared with normal control group (T1). The WBCs was found to be increased with the reduction in the RBCs and Hemoglobin (Hb.) concentration. However there were no significant changes of these parameters in the other treated groups (T3, T4, T5, and T6) in contrast to (T1). The serum total protein, globulin and, albumin were found to be decreased significantly for the (T2) in comparison with the (T1). However, their level had been relatively normalized in comparison to (T2) as a result of administrating doses of 0.5, and 1.0 ml L-glutaminase in combination with 0.5 mg ethylenimine /Kg. body weight for T5 and T6 respectively. Concerning the level of serum globulins, there were a significant elevation in the serum globulins value for T5 and T6 which were treated with doses of 0.5 and 1.0 ml L-glutaminase in combination with 0.5 mg ethylenimine/Kg. body weight respectively. While, a significant decrease in the values of serum albumin detected in all rats’ treated groups and the L-glutaminase efficacy was not achieved completely compared with the T1.The Liver enzymes ALT, AST and, ALP for T2 showed significant elevation at the level (p<0.05) when compared with T1. The treatment with L-glutaminase at doses of 0.5 and, 1 ml /kg body weight in combination with 0.5 mg of ethylenimine/kg body weight in T5 and, T6 groups respectively, seem to reverse the changes to word near normal level. There were a significant elevation (p<0.05) in the relative weight of Liver, kidney and spleen of rats in T2 in comparison with T1. However, there weight decreased significantly (p<0.05) in T5 group in comparison to (T2). Whereas there were no significant differences in the organs’ relative weight for the T6 group from that of T1. The finding of the present study improved the preventive role of the L-glutaminase against the mutagenic, and carcinogenic effect of ethylinimine, and it was dose dependent T1.

Key Management Distribution Scheme in Wireless Sensor Network Based on Knapsack Algorithm

Kameran Ali Ameen

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 17-33
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.13.4.2

Key management in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a complex task due to its nature of environment, limited resources and open communication channel. In addition, wireless communication poses additional threats to the critical information being sent and received over there. WSN are necessary to be protected from different attacks. But, the major problem to secure WSN is a key distribution after deploying the sensor nodes in specific area. This paper examines the design of an efficient key management distribution scheme for WSN. The proposed method based on knapsack algorithm that requires generating a series of vectors to encrypt the private keys only that will be sent to the cluster heads by base station. The same method is used by each cluster head to encrypt only the keys that will be sent to their members. The simulation results showed that the proposed key management method can offers efficient security prerequisites, suitable scalability, and connectivity to achieve authentication..

Generalized Weak Forms of Irresolute Mappings in Intuitionistic Topological Spaces

Samer R. Yaseen; Nabila I. Aziz; Suham I. Aziz

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 34-44
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.13.4.3

The purpose of this paper is to study a new classes of irresolute mappings called Intuitionistic Generalized Pre irresolute mappings, Intuitionistic Generalized Semi irresolute mappings, Intuitionistic Generalized α-irresolute mappings and Intuitionistic Generalized β-irresolute mappings with study of their properties. Then we investigate relationships between them..

Nurses’ Knowledge Regarding Patients Safety After Diagnostic Cardiac Catheterization in Azadi Teaching Hospital in Kirkuk City

Faisal Younus Sameen

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 45-56
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.13.4.4

The present study aims to assess Nurse’s Knowledge about Patient Safety after diagnostic Cardiac Catheterization at Azadi Teaching Hospital in Kirkuk City. A descriptive study survey approach was carried out from the period of 1st March 2017 up to 1st October 2017. A non-probability (purposive sampling) method was used to select the sample of the study. The study includes the (45) nurses who are working in medical ICU and cardiac medical ward at Azadi Teaching Hospital in Kirkuk City. The instrument of the study is Self structured questionnaire which is developed to assess the knowledge of nurses who are working in ICU and cardiac medical ward. The analysis of the data was used descriptive statistics (frequencies, percentages, mean, S.D), and inferential statistical (ANOVA and t- test). The results of the study showed that (48.9 %) of samples were in the age group between (23-27) year, and with a mean & SD of 2.13± 1.12.(64.4%) of study sample were female, (37.8 %) of the sample were graduate from Nursing institute, (75.6%) of them having (1-5) years of experience in the nursing profession, (95.6%) of the nurses had no training session in cardiac catheterization. The socio-demographic characteristic of the sample of the study has no significant relationship with knowledge at (P value < 0.05). The results of the questionnaire demonstrated that the nurses who are working in medical ICU and cardiac medical ward nurse’s knowledge towards Patient Safety after diagnostic Cardiac Catheterization were far from optimal. The researcher recommends the establishment educational training programs for staff working in cardiac catheterization and establishes specialized centers for cardiac catheterization..

The Reactivity of Anti-HCMV IgM to Various Specific HCMV Antigens Among Pregnant Women in Kirkuk.

Staar Mohammed Qader; Israa Hashim Saadoon; Thekra Ahmed Hamada

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 57-68
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.13.4.5

Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a DNA virus of the Betaherpesvirinae subfamily and Herpesviridae family. HCMV is a leading cause of congenital infections throughout the world. This study was carried out in Kirkuk governorate from July 2017 to January 2018,aimed at studying there activity of anti-HCMV IgM to various specific HCMV antigens among 180 pregnant women attending hospitals, primary health care centers and some private medical laboratories. The pregnant women were examined for HCMV-IgM seroprevalence using Electro-chemo-luminescence(ECLIA) technique then examined their reactivity for specific HCMV antigens using line immune assay. The rates of HCMV-IgM seropositive were 22 (12.22 %). Regarding the reactivity of determined HCMV-IgM against various HCMV antigens, the rates 14 (63.63%), 13(59.09%), 21(95.45%), 15(68.18%), 21(95.45%) and 16(72.72%) were seropositive for HCMV IE1, CM2, p150, p65, gB1 and gB2 antigens, respectively. Concerning the band intensity of HCMV-IgM reactions with HCMV antigens, the rates of (+++) were higher than other band intensity for all antigens with highest rate for gB1 antigen (85.71%). So, the highest rate of HCMV-IgM reaction with the number of antigens was 40.90% for three antigens at the same time. In conclusion, the highest rate of HCMV-IgM in pregnant women was for gB1and p150 antigens; while the highest rate of intensity reaction was (+++)and the highest rate of HCMV-IgM ability for reaction was for three antigens at the same time..

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma-IgA and its Relation to Serum IL-4 Level Among Pregnant Women.

Sanarya Kamal Tawfiq; Zainab Sulaiman Rezaig; Mohemid M. Al- Jebouri

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 69-81
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.13.4.6

Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It is one of the most common parasitic infections in humans and is most typically asymptomatic. However infection in a pregnant woman can cause severe and disabling disease in the developing fetus. The presented study aimed to determination the correlation of Toxo-IgA  seroprevalence among pregnant women to various Toxoplasma antigens with the serum IL-4 level. From the June 2017 to January  2018, 300 pregnant women enrolled in this study attended to hospitals, primary health care centers and some private medical laboratories in Kirkuk. The pregnant women were examined for Toxo-IgA and determine their specificity for various Toxoplasma antigens by using line immune assay and the serum IL-4 evaluated by using ELISA technique. The rates of  Toxo-IgA seropositive were 22 (7.33 %). Considering the reactivity of determined Toxo-IgA against various Toxoplasma antigens; the rates were 12(54.54%), 13(59.09%), 11(50.00%), 14(63.63%), 17(77.27%), 13(59.09%), 11(50.00%) and 18(81.81%) seropositive for Toxoplasma ROP1C, MIC3, GRA7, GRA8, p30, MAG1, GRA1 and rSAG1 antigens respectively. Regarding to the total serum IL-4 level, the highest rate of decreased serum IL-4 level among Toxo-IgA seropositive was 59.09%.In the presented study we concluded the highest rates of decreased serum IL-4 levels was 54.55% seen within Toxo-IgA seropositive for GRA7 and GRA1 antigens , and the rates of increased serum IL-4 level ranged from 5.88% to 9.09% within all seropositive groups to various Toxoplasma antigens.

Anatomical and Histological Study of the Human Neonate Lungs

Abdul Jabbar Jamil Mahdi; Saad Ahmed Al-Rawi; Sara Yassen Mohammed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 82-95
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.13.4.7

The current study aims to describe the normal anatomical structures of neonate lungs )weights, volumes and dimensions( as well as the architectural histology of structure In this study, 20 neonate cadavers collected with age ranging from 0-28 days, all these cadavers were collected from the Forensic Medicine in Baghdad and Kirkuk. Following dissection, the organ weight and gross metrical measurements were measured. Histological study was done on all cadavers enrolled in the study using Periodic Acid Schiff )PAS( Stain The results showed that the weight of neonatal lung was increased proportionally with age and the highest mean weight, volume and dimensions of lungs were found in neonates whose in the age group 22-28 day. The study revealed that dimensions of the left lungs were slightly more than those of right lungs especially in the age group 22-28 days. The study indicated that the volume of neonatal lungs were increased proportionally with age and the highest mean volume of lungs was found in neonates whose in the age group 22-28 days 50.03 cm3. The tunica media of the blood vessels of small and medium sized were well demonstrated of the thickness of alveolar walls also were obvious with inflammatory cell infiltration, the interstitial C.T. also associated with presence of smooth muscle cells, surrounded by segments of hyaline cartilage which are demonstrated easily, the lumen of bronchus appeared containing exudate, around the lung was containing with collagen bundle the elastic fibers. The basement membrane of the pulmonary blood vessels was demonstrated well by PAS which appeared thickened and the lumen of blood vessels was filled with blood serum and individual inflammatory cell. The interstitial C.T. around the blood vessels were containing dust cell with lymphocyte infiltration. .

Effect of Annealing on Some Properties of Zn2SnO4 Thin Films Prepared by PLD Technique

Sabri J. Mohammed; Kadhim A. Aadim; Maad M. Ameen

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 96-112
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.13.4.8

In this paper, the investigation of structural and optical properties of Zn2SnO4 thin films were studied. The films are performed on glass substrates by pulsed laser technique (PLD) using laser Nd: YAG at wavelength of 1064 nm with 800 mj laser energy using repetition rate of 6 Hz. and average 400 laser pulses at room temperature and annealing by tubular quartz furnace at temperature (573,773) K for 2 hours with air. XRD measurements showed that the structure for all samples is polycrystalline with a cubic nanostructure. Surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy SEM and atomic force microscopy AFM. After annealing, the roughness of the surface and the mean grain size were increased. Optical properties as a function to wavelength in the range (300-1100 nm) have been studied. Absorption spectra of Zn2SnO4 thin films showed that absorption decreases with increasing annealing temperature. Direct energy gap for a Zn2SnO4 thin film was increases with increasing temperature for all samples due to crystal growth. The optical properties such as extinction coefficient, refractive index, and dielectric constant were also studied. .

Geochemistry and Provenance of Sandstone Unit in Tanjero Formation in Sulimania Area, NE-Iraq.

Sarmad Asi Ali; Eman Mahdi Mohmmad

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 113-126
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.13.4.9

Sandstone rocks occurring in the Tanjero Formation in the Sulimania and Pera-Magron areas, which crops out within the Imbricated and High Folded Zones in Northeastern Iraq, are lithic arenites with high proportions of sedimentary rock fragments. The presence of quartz, chert, carbonates and igneous and metamorphic lithic grains and fossils in the Tanjero sandstone clastic rocks indicates that the southern Neotethys Ocean was a shallow seaway during their deposition. Geochemical classification of the an Upper Cretaceous Tanjero sandstone clastic rocks are lithic arenites to Fe-Sand and indicates that they were mainly derived from Albian-Cenomanian Gimo–Qandil sequence ophiolite-bearing terrane and Hemipelagic sediments (Parautochthonous Qulqula rocks)..

Effect of SiO2 Mixing on Structural Properties of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) Technique

Zuheer N. Majeed; Abdul-Majeed E. Al-Samarai; Ghuson H. Mohammed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 127-136
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.13.4.10

In this paper ,ZnO was mixed by various concentrations (5,10,15,20,25) w% SiO2.The mixture was deposited on glass substrate by laser pulse deposition at room temperature. X-ray results showed that there was a decrease in the peaks of zinc oxide with gradual peaks of the zinc silicate compound at angles 2Ө (25̊,38̊,48̊,66̊) due to the increase in silicon oxide concentrations rates. The infrared spectrometer Fourier transform was used to study all prepared films and gave good results about the chemical bonds of the composite and their locations and correspond to the standard results of the zinc silicate compound . The results of the Atomic Force Microscope showed that all of prepared films were having Nano scale size and there was an increase in square root roughness index.
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Treatment of Swelling and Collapsible Characteristics of Soils By Waste Building Materials

Mohammed O. Ibrahim; Rizgar A. Humadi

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 137-154
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.13.4.11

Volume changes occur when soil exposed to water, for expansive soil the size of soil increases and produce pressure on surrounding area, but for collapsible soil it cause large amount of settlement under a certain load, the amount of swelling and swelling pressure can be predicted by depending on some physical properties. In order to recycling the materials of waste building demolition and stabilization soil, this research studied, the effect of adding waste building material in different percentages (2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20)% by the weight to the soil. The results showed that by adding 2.5% of waste building material the swell potential will decrease by 24% and the soil changes from medium to low expansive, and by adding 20% of waste building material the swell potential will decrease by 55% and soil changes from high to middle expansive. In addition, for swell pressure by adding 2.5% of waste building material, the swell pressure will decrease by 16% and for 20% of waste building material the swell pressure will decrease by 50%. On the other hand the Collapsible soil that contain gypsum showed that the potential of collapse will decrease by adding 2.5% of waste building materials by amount more than 15% and the soil changed from middle to low collapsible, the collapse potential will decrease 40% by adding 15% of waste building materials..

Detection of Efflux Pumps Genes in Pseudomonasaeruginosa Isolates Isolated from Open Fracture Infections

Zahraa Khairi-Aldeen Mohi-Aldeen; Muhsin Ayoub Essa; Mahmod Zeki Al-Hasso

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 155-169
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.13.4.12

Abstract
The presence of Effluxpumpsgenes (MexR, MexB, MexA) and (MexZ,MexY, MexX) was investigated in 24 antibiotic resisting isolates of Paeruginosa, isolated from open fracture infections using PCR technique. The results showed 100% presence of (MexR, MexB, MexA) and (MexZ,MexY) genes in all tested isolates while the MexX gene was present in only 7 isolates representing 29.2%.
(29.2%).

Histological and Histochemical Study in the Parasite Causing Diahrria in the White Mices.

Fatin Th. Abd Al-Rahman Altaee; Qusay M. Al-Dakheel; Najah S. Nayef

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 170-186
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.13.4.13

The research aims to show the histopathological changes caused by Intistinal protozoa in differ tissues in the body (liver, lung, intesitant) infection in laboratory animals (1 Week, 2 Week, 1 Month, 2 Month). Histopathological examination of liver, lung, Intesitant showed the presence of degeneration and necrotic hepatic cyts and emphysema in alveolar alveoli in the lung and mucinous degeneration in the cell epithelium cell intestinal glands, distortion of vill in intestine.

Effect of the Allelopathy on the Succession of Some Plants in Germination and Growth Traits.

Abdalla Y. Ali; Jasem M. Aziz

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 187-201
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.13.4.14

The effect of the Allelopathy on the succession of some plants in the soils previously planted with sunflower, Alfalfa, Okra, pumpkin, cowpea, and tomato plants was studied in germination of the seeds and growth of the above mentioned plants. The results of this study showed that the Allelopathy had an effect on the subsequent crops, which caused a significant reduction in the percentage of germination of plant seeds. The highest percentage of germination in the seeds of the sunflower (97.44%) was planted after the pumpkin and tomato plants. The effect of the Allelopathy in the growth of seedlings (length of the Plumule and the Radiant and their dry weight) varied in their effect on the subsequent crop between inhibition and stimulation. The cultivated soil was more stimulating in the length of the Plumule (12.93 cm) And the least stimulating soil Tomato (2.80 cm) in the germination of the seeds of the sunflower, as for the length of the root, the soil of the Okra was more stimulating in the germination of cowpea seeds (26.69 cm) and the least inhibition of gourd soil was (2.63 cm) in the germination of the seeds of the tomato..

Study of Some Influencing Factors on the Dielectric Strength of (Blend PZT) Nanocomposites Piezoelectric

Jaafar K. Ch. Al-Suwaydawei; Ahmad H. M. Al-Falahi

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 202-214
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.13.4.15

The aim of this research is to study the affecting factors on the dielectric strength of polymeric blend [of Epoxy resin and unsaturated polyester] and its composites. A Nano composites were prepared based on polymeric blend ( 80% Ep + 20% UPE), supported by Nano Piezoelectric powder (PZT), of crystalline size (1-10 nm) with weight percentages (2, 4 and 6 Wt%). Dielectric strength (Ebr) for the blend and composite samples was studied before and after immersion in water for 11 weeks. The results showed that (Ebr) decreases with average the rise of voltage decreasing, increasing the thickness of samples and by form nonlinearly (35.13 kv/s – 19.38 kV/s), and with the number of cycles While (Ebr) increases with increasing the addition of ratio (36.77 kV/s – 43.82 kV/s ). On the other hand, immersing the samples in the water caused a clear reduction of the dielectric strength for each of the blend and composites..

Computer Simulation for the Process of Overlapping Solid Sets of Sprinkler Irrigation Using Single Sprinkler Data.

Abdulrazaq khudhur Abdulwahd

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 215-237
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.13.4.16

This study includes the preparation of a computer program for working the overlapping of sprinklers using the Fortran Programing where the program deal with one sprinkler data in the field and convert this data to four sprinklers working together in the field and simulated the reality of the work sprinklers in the field by different dimensions for both distance between sprinklers (S), the pipe lines (L) with the four sprinklers arrangement and finding the results of the Christensen value (CU), the efficiency and adequacy of the irrigation (considering that the net depth of irrigation NDI equals the average depth of water given to the field), for each cases. The largest values for (L × S) of the field depend on the value of (CU ) not less than (80%). The results of 83.888 and 86.666 for the first experiment by two shapes triangle and rectangle respectively, while the second experiment we got 85.06 and 80.95 in same way by shapes (triangle and rectangle) respectively, also the in third experiment the results appear 81.9 and 82.53 for the distribution of triangle and rectangle respectively, which are good values for the largest irrigated area of the filed, economically in the design of the pipe line. The irrigation efficiency is high for all values exceeded 90%. Through the data of CU and efficiency of the addition of water, the equation equal (CU% = 2*Efficiency % -1) with (R2 = 1). Cu%=2EFF%-1.

Effect of Sodium Azide on Urease and Biofilm Formation and its Relationship to Swarming Phenomenon in Proteus Mirabilis

Omar Sinan Sadiq Al-Zaidi; Luma Abd Alhadee

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 238-252
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.13.4.17

The current study was carried out in order to detect the effect of sodium azide on Urease production and biofilm formation in P.mirabilis. Twenty one isolates of Proteus were collected from different clinical and animals samples for the period from 15th October 2017 to 1st November 2017 and identification depending on microscopic characterization, biochemical tests and conformed by Vitec-2 compact system, its turns out that only 18 isolates belong to the specie P.mirabilis.All P.mirabilis isolates 100% were have the ability to produce urease enzyme.
All P.mirabilis 100% un able to form biofilm on Congo red agar while 100% were strongly able to form biofilm on microtiter plate. The addition of Sodium azide shown an inhibition ratio in biofilm formation depending on the concentration and source of isolate also shows inhibition ability in urease enzyme production in both swimmer cells and swarmer cells of P.mirabilis depending on the source of isolate and concentration.
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Assessment of Albumin, Malondialdehyd Levels and Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Pregnant Women in Kirkuk City.

Mozeiyan Fadhly Namik; Muniif Saab Al-Janaby; Sahlah Khorshid Abbas

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 253-265
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.13.4.18

This study aimed to evaluate the serum levels of albumin, malonaialdehyde (MDA) as an end product of lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as an antioxidant enzyme, in pregnancy and postpartum women. The study included (120) pregnancies during months of pregnancy conducted in Al-jmhwry and Al-salam helth center /Kirkuk with (20) non-pregnants women whom served control and (20) as postpartum in the age (18-40) years. The study was carried out from 3/2016 to 3/2017. The results indicated for a signifcant increase. In albumin serum levels during the months of pregnancy and decreas in activity of superoxid dismutase enzyme in the last three months of pregnancy, while there was a significant increas in serum levels of (MDA) in contrast with control).

Study The Chemical Analysis and Lethal dose of Alcoholic Extract For Qunabrey Plant Cardaria Draba(L.)Desv.

Sadia shahab hamad; Tawfiq Ibrahim Al-alousy; Dyiab abed Al-Sawah

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 266-278
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2018.13.4.19

This study was aimed to obtain the alcoholic extract of cardaria draba (L.) Des .plant of ethanol %70,%96 in both dry and fresh parts respectively. The weight of the extract of the c.draba plant was 55.70,8.71 for dry part and fresh part respectively. Determine preliminary the chemical group included in the extract by using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) techniques. Four types of plate and four types of solutions were used, the results showed that the fourth type of plate was better for separation and the fourth type of solutions was better. A result of the separation were detected (10 14) compound in both the dry and fresh parts respectively. The relative flow rate (RF) was measured by ultra violet radiation on the wave length (365) nm. Different RF rate values and different color spectra were obtained for the dry and fresh extract respectively. Esculetin as a coumarine compound has been determined according to standard substances.
The determination of half fatal dose LD50 (lethal dose) by oral administration of the Extract for the mice, and the results of experiments observed very low percent of death (3.33%) by using the (1750-1000) mg/ml and (6.66%) in (2000) mg/ml dose respectively.
2000 mg/kg.