Volume 4, Issue 2, Autumn 2009, Page 1-124


Optimal design for Spider frame in the Compound of the University of Kirkuk

Hammad D. AL-Azzawi Qubad Sabah H. Abdullah

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.36229

The research includes scientific analyses of the problems and difficulties that companies making the (spider frame s) in kirkuk University. This research these to put the suitable solution based on scientific bases on international limits (ACI/2003and ASTM)and also these slabs had been reanalysis &redesigned by using (STAAD Pro ) computer programs to compares the designing results . in order to make a clear view by the designer before designing . such find used grater than of steel reinforcement and used bigger diameter of steel reinforcement cussed difficulties during making , and find this frames are height cost and the sound and finishing are not study at the design.

The detection of fimbriae by Transmission electron microscope in Salmonella isolated locally from patient in Kirkuk city and compared with some standard isolates .

Dr.Hager Ali Shareef

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 13-26
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.36237

This study include the detection of fimbriae by Transmission electron microscope in three type of locall isolates of Salmonella (S.typhi , S.typhimurium, S.montevideo) and compared with their standard strains (S.typhi , S.paratyphi B , S. paratyphi C ) respectively. The results showed that all isolates of Salmonella possessed type 1 fimbriae .
The study also determind the ability of these microorganism to adhered to Rat enterocyte , the statistical analysis reveled that there was no significant differences in adhesion rates to Rat enterocyte between locall isolates and their standard strains

Determination of the Content of the Rare Earth Elements (REE) in Akashat Phosphate rocks (Paliocene) in

Kotayba T. Al-Youzbakey; Salim M. Al-Dabbagh

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 27-38
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.36243

The X-ray fluorescence technique meets the requirements of qualitative and quantitative analysis of widely variable major, minor and trace elements including rare earth elements (REE) in geological samples. Although the REE are generally enriched in phosphate rock, yet there are only few elements e.g. La, Ce and Nd can be directly analyzed by XRF method. The analysis of the other REE required additional chemical treatment of the samples (known and unknown) to insure similarity in matrix material, and to obtained lowest spectrum overlap with analytical line of the REE. In addition, the chemical treatment is intended to increase the REE concentration to a level that makes L-lines intensity measurement by XRF is possible. The whole subject represents the core of the present study.
The chemical treatment includes three main stages: (1) digestion of the sample using nitric, hydrochloric, hydrofluoric and perchloric acids. (2) Oxalate precipitation to separate elements with oxidation state of +2 or more (including REE) according to the solubility of their oxalate precipitate. After proper filtration, the precipitate on the filter paper is transferred and dissolved in diluted nitric acid. (3) Precipitation of the separated element as hydroxide on aluminum hydroxide carrier. The hydroxide precipitate were pressed into pellet which is subjected to intensity measurement of the L line of the REE. The study display the results of evaluation of the present analytical method which indicate to (in average) analytical accuracy and precision better than 10% and 3% respectively.
Key words: phosphorites, phosphatic ore, REE, Akashat Fm., XRF.

Study Effect Nature Adsorbent on Benzidin

Rabah T. Mahmod; Lekaa H. Alwaan; Lyla A.Al-Jaber

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 39-53
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.36891

This research involves the study of effect nature of the adsorbent in term of surface and volume of pores and the nature of the surface and the adsorbent ,the results showed that the efficiency of adsorption of Benzidin adsorbent followed the following sequence:
Activated Carbon > Silica- gel > Alumina > Kaolin
This research is also showed that activated carbon is better adsorbent compared with other adsorbents . The equilibrium time of adsorption was found (50-60)minute.Also the adsorption isotherm according to Freundlich and Langmuir equations is calculated , Thermodynamic properties (∆Go,∆Ho,∆So)are calculated and found the adsorption processes are Exothermic .The effect of changing the acidity of solution is also studied and found that as acidity increased the amount of adsorbate increased as well as effect of hydrogen bonding was discussed .

Design and study the characteristics of silica –doped silica fiber optics

Muhammed A. Hussain; Abdulsattar A. Aesa; Khalil I. Mohammad

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 54-67
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.36927

The aim of this study is to design and study the characteristics of optic fiber made from silica-doped silica.pure silica and 3-doped silica materials (13.5 m / o GeO2 +86.5 m / o SiO2 , 7.0 m / o GeO2 +93.0 m / o SiO2 , 4.1 m / o GeO2 +95.9 m / o SiO2) .Some materials are selected to design an optic fiber .Sellmeir equation are used to calculate the refractive index of the materials .Accordingly 3-types of optical fiber are proposed .
The characteristics of the optical fiber such as :Numerical Aperture ,critical angle ,v-number ,mode number and effective area are calculated. The results show when windows of communication are taken into consideration ,the core of the first fiber optic is made of pure silica ,while the glade is made of 13.5 m/o GeO2+86.5 m/o SiO2 ,this fiber optic is used as fiber of transmission due to the smallness of the numerical aperture in it ,either for the second fiber ,the core was made of pure silica ,while the glade was made of 7.0 m/o GeO2+93.0 m/o SiO2 ,it also can be used as a fibre of transmission or reception according to the application used in it . finally the third fiber has the core made of pure silica ,while the glade was made of 4.1 m/o GeO2+95.9 m/o SiO2 ,it can be used an a fiber of reception due to the width of the numerical aperture in it .

Effect of Seasonal Change on Reproductive Physiology of Capra ibex in the Central Parts of Iraqi

Fatima J. Azgar; Liqaa Y. Abd.Al-Rahman

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 68-84
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.36977

The current study were carried on 7 females and two males of Capra ibex , age 2.5 – 4 years respectively . All animals were put under normal environmental conditions for the whole study period: Results showed that the beginning of the reproductive season in female ibex were started from the middle of October , while the females were out of heat until the middle of November , which were considered as the beginning of females breeding season which continued until the 19th February , the end of their breeding season , when sexual behaviour and activities of males and females were ceased up to the 15th of March . Estrous cycle length were 22.67 + 0.60 days , the longest were noted during November , while the shortest were during February . No significant differences were recorded through out the study period. December represented the climax of the reproductive season with (10) cycles and 100% estrus signs as compared to the other months of the study. The period of proestrus , estrus and diestrus stayes were 1.37 + 0.19 , 1.67 + 0.16 and 19.60 + 0.60 days respectively , no significant differences were recorded for the whole period of the study . the value activity of serum progesterone concentration were an important tool in reflecting the ovarian function in female , which were at its lowest level 0.41 + 0.00 ng/ml during the 3rd day of heat , while its highest level 7.21 + 0.60 ng/ml were recorded during the 13th day of luteal stage , the most significant increases in progesteron concentration (P < 0.05) 4.44 + 0.43 ng / ml were recorded during luteal phase as compared to proestrus and estrus phase.
It may be concluded that , femal capra ibex are seasonal breeders , and their breeding season exteneds from the middle of October until the middle of February, while December represented the climax of the reproductive season.

Effect of sowing dates and growth regulator Hypertonic concentrations on percentage of flower dropping, growth, yield and yield component ’s characteristics of broad bean ( Vicia faba L. ).

Ali.H.Rahym. AL-Dawdi; Ayob.J.Abdrhman. AL-Bayat

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 85-103
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.37012

This experiment was carried out at the clay soil of Kifri district (140 km north Baquba Governorate ) to study the effect of three sowing date and four concentrations of growth regulator Hypertonic on percentage of flower dropping, growth, yield and yield component’s characteristics of broad bean (Vicia faba L.Var.Tono). A Factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replication was used .The results indicated that the third sowing date (30/11) gave least period for 50% flowering (92 day), appearance first legume (105.8 day) and broken stem percentage (3.79% ). Sowing date at (1/11) gave a highest plant height, while sowing date at (15/11) gave a highest seed weight (1.07 g), yield /plant (17.83 g /plant ) and seed yield ( 2.08 t/ha). The Hypertonic spray whith a concentration 1.5 ml/L water gave a highest percentage of chlorophyll a,b and total, so gave least period for 50% flowering (98.22 day),appearance first legume and least dropping flowers percentage (74.76%) . A higher seed weight (1.08 g), yield/plant (18.48 g/plant) and seed yield (2.15 t/ha) was obtained with spray concerantion 1.5 ml/L . Intraction between sowing date (30/11) and using 1.5 ml concerantion Hypertonic gave a highest percentage of chlorophyll a,b and total, so decreasing the period for 50% flowering and appearance first legume. While intraction between sowing date (15/11) and using 1.5 ml conceration gave a highest seed weight (1.15 g) , yield/plant (20.67 g/plant) and seed yield (2.28 t/ha) .

Effect of plant Densities in Growth Characters and yield ,it,s Components of five verities of plant cotton

Arshad th. Al-noaimi Khattab A. Mohammad; khalid k. Al-gibouri

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 104-116
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.37252

The aim of this research is studing three plant densities (one plant in ped ,two plant in ped and three plant in ped ) on the characters for five genotypes of cotton planting in April 2007 in two locations (Hawija and Sherqat) in R.C.B.D design in split plot system , the main plot contains varieties and the sub plot contains number of plants .All the genotypes showed high significance in 1% level except number of fruit branch which showed significantly differences in 5% level .percentage of ginning showed significant
differences in 1% level for the densities of plant .
The interaction between densities and varieties showed highly significant differences for all characters in 1 % level expect weight of the boll weight showed difference in 5% level . Also the results showed that the variety (Dun 1047) highly significant differences in the yield and number of bolls and number of branching in two locations.
The differences were non significant in the interaction (variety X densities ) for the number of vegetative branches and percentage of ginning of the two locations and the number of days of flower opening in Sherqat location .

Chemistry of accessory chromian spinel in serpentinites from the Penjwen ophiolite rocks, Zagros thrust zone,

Sabah A.Ismail

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 1-21
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.37543

Chromian spinel is a widespread accessory mineral in ultramafic rocks of the Penjwen ophiolite, occurring in two modes; fresh grains in dunite rocks that crop out in the eastern part and altered grains in serpentinized peridotites in the western part of the Penjwen ophiolite. Unaltered grains are generally primary phase optically and chemically homogeneous with uniform high Cr# at ~ 0.72 and low Mg# at 0.3. High-Cr#, low-Al2O3, low-TiO2 chromites have the geochemical characteristic of chromites preserved in arc lavas and specifically overlap the field of chromites in boninites.
. The cores of altered spinel grains from serpentinized harzburgite appear to retain their original igneous chemistry and are similar to fresh chromian spinel grains. The outer rim of these grains shows different degrees of alteration. Four criteria characterized the alteration process of Cr-spinel in serpentinised peridotite rocks of the Penjwen ophiolite. First, optical inhomogeneity on the scale of micrometers; chromian spinel is deep reddish brown in thin section, but opaque due to replacement by magnetite along cracks and grain boundaries. Second, chemical zonation with a decrease in Mg, Al, and Cr, increase in Fe and significant modification of minor elements (Si, Ti and Mn) towards the fractures and grain margins. Third, significant amount of SiO2¬ analyzed in Cr-spinel. Although Si does not go into the crystal structure of spinel, the microprobe analysis detected sub ordinary amount of SiO2. This suggests the presence of submicroscopic silicate phase situated at the vacancy of dissolution elements (Mg, Al, and Cr). Fourth, Ferritchromite rims and chlorite aureoles. Altered spinels deviate from primitive Cr-spinel, by sharp increase in Fe# and Cr#. The chemical changes reflect hydrothermal metamorphic reactions between spinels and the surrounding serpentinized silicate matrix.

Study of nature, origin, movement and extension of sand dunes by using sedimentological aspects and remote sensing techniques in Baiji area, North Iraq

Amera I. HussainSabbar A. Salih; Lafta S. Kadim

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 22-36
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.38922

The sand dunes in Baiji area causing many problems, such as accumulation of the moved sand on the railway, roads, sand and dust storms which affect and causes pollution for civil constructions and industries in the area, as well as, increasing desertification. This study aims to explain the morphology, origin, grain size and movement of the sand dunes in Baiji area. The study including detail field study of the sand dunes and investigation of the future effect of extension and increasing the desertification in the area within time Using of remote sensing and geographical information system in the study of desertification by Multitemporal data which including(maps and Landsat Thematic Mapper(TM)images)provided best understanding of the distribution of sand dunes and other aeolian features in the area of study.

Synthesis and Characterization of Some Schiff Bases(derived from thiazole)and Their Complexes With Co(II),Ni(II) and Cu(II)

Adnan A.Humada; Saleh A.Ahmed; Ali O.Mohamed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 37-45
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.38928

The synthesis of some new coordination compounds for cobalt (II), nickel(II)and copper(II)with Schiff bases derived from(2-aminobenzothiazole,6-nitro-2-aminobenzothiazole,4,6-dibromo-2-aminobenzothiazole) and 4-N-dimethylbezaldehyde to give ligands (La,Lan and Ladb) were prepared and then reacted with metal salts in ethanol as a solvent in 1:2 ratio (metal : ligand). The complexes which have the general formula [ML2Cl2] Where M=Co (II) , Ni (II) and Cu (II),( L=La,Lan,or Ladb) all ligands and it's metal complexes were characterized using metal analysis by Atomic absorption, Infrared spectra ,Electronic spectra, Molar conductance and Magnetic moment measurements ; These measurements indicated that the ligands coordinate with metal (II) ion in a bidentate manner through the nitrogen atoms in ligands, Octahedral structures were suggested for metal complexes.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Total Vitamin C in Some Fruits and Vegetables at Koya Area – Kurdistan Region/ Iraq

Qasim Y. MohammedWali M. Hamad Emad K.Mohammed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 46-54
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.39913

A simple UV- spectrophotometric method for the determination of the total vitamin C (ascorbic acid + dehydroascorbic acid) in various fruits and vegetables at Koya area in Kurdistan Region is described. The spectrophotometric method involves the oxidation of ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid by bromine water in presence of acetic acid. After coupling with 2,4 -dinitrophenyl hydrazine at 37°C temperature for about three hours, the solution is treated with 85% H2SO4 to produce a red color complex. Then, the absorbance was spectrophotometrically measured at 280 nm. The content of vitamin C was 1.868 to 51.74 mg/10g in fruits and 0.841 to 17.416 mg/10g in vegetables.The standard deviation and the possible interfering factors are also discussed.

Convection Concentric Annulus Vertical Cylinders Filling Porous Media

Attala H.Jasim; Adnan M.Hussein Tahseen A.Tahseen

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 55-71
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.39922

An experimental and theoretical study of convection vertical concentric annulus two cylinders filling with porous medium was carried out . The experimental part was contained manufactured test rig and connected thermocouples then power on and reading temperatures until steady state . The theoretical part was contained solved governing equations by using Fluent software which drawing temperature profiles and stream functions for different ratio (r/R) and Ra . The results contained the relations between Nu with Ra and Nu with ratio (r/R) then experimental Nu with theoretical Nu so there was a good agreement between them.

Measurements of Radon- 222 concentrations in dwellings of kirkuk city, Iraq.

Ahmed A. Ibrahim Al-obedy

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 72-82
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.39937

Inhalation of indoor has been recognized as one of The health hazards . Building materials, natural gas and underground – derived water supply are considered The major sources of indoor radon and its Daughters . In This work a set of radon measurements was carried out, using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector , in different compartments of dwelling in kirkuk built of The same type of building materials . The results showed that Bathrooms and cellar have higher radon concentrations levels compared with living rooms ,bedroom, kitchen room and the out door levels. The results were within universally permitted levels .

New Extended CG Algorithm For Non-Linear Optimization

Adham A. Ali; Abbas H.Taqi

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 83-93
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.39953

This paper presents the development and implementation of a new algorithm based on non-quadratic rational function model.The derivation of the new algorithm is based on aquadratic function with exact line searches and evaluated numerically against the standard CG-algorithm by using(25) non-linear test functions with different dimensions. The numerical results indicate that the new algorithm is found to be superior to the standard CG algorithm.

A Modified estimation for the steplenght of a descent nonlinear algorithm

Abbas Y. AL-Bayati; and Ivan Subhi Latif

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 94-107
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.39976

In this paper, we have presented a numerical algorithm for the step-size estimation for minimization problems. Global convergence results are derived for descent algorithms in which the line search step is replaced by a step whose length is determined by step-size estimation formula. Numerical results show that the new estimation step-size required less storage and greatly speeded up the convergence of the gradient algorithm for large-scale unconstrained optimization problems. Also the new proposed algorithm seems to converge better and superior to other similar algorithms in many situations.

Some Numerical Methods to Solve a System of Fredholm Integral Equations of the 2nd Kind with Symmetric Kernel

Nejmaddin A. Sulaiman

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 108-116
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.40042

In this paper the modification in successive approximation method is defined to solve a system of linear fredholm integral equations(SLFIE) of the 2nd kind with symmetric kernel, also applied Aitken method depending on successive approximation method to the solve SLFIE of the 2nd kind and the algorithm for the methods are suggested, efficiency of the methods is clear through solving some numerical examples, the results in tables (1,2,3 and 4) indicate the accuracy of the approachs.

Minimizing Error Bounds in Lacunary Interpolation by Spline (0, 2) Case

Karwan H. Jwamer Faridun Kader Hama Salih

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 117-124
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.41661

In this paper, we have changed the boundary conditions and the class of spline functions which are given by (Varma, (1973) from first derivative to third derivative, and show that the change of the boundary conditions and the class of spline functions affecting in minimizing the error bounds for lacunary interpolation by spline function.