Volume 4, Issue 1, Spring 2009, Page 1-80


STUDY OXYGEN CONTENT EFFECTS ANNEALING FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE(Bi2Ba2Ca1 Cu2O7-δ)

Hussein Ali Mohammed; Dr-SABAH.J. FATHI

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 35-47
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.40109

samples of high temperature superconductors(Bi2 Ba2 Ca1 Cu2 O7-δ) [System2212] were prepared by solid state reaction method with different sintering temperature (i.e790,830,860,890). C°
X-ray analysis techniques were used to examine the structure of the compound, the study showed ,that the sample prepared during sintering temparture at 860 ċ exhibite tetragonal phase with lattice parameter, (a=b=5.43A° ,c=31.55 A°) while the compound prepared at 890C° Exhibit achange of structure from (tetragonal to orthorhombic) phase this is due to decreasing in(c) axise and increasing in the other two axises (a,b)and the value of lattice parameters were
a=5.45A° , b=5.48A° ,c=30,9 5A°
Electric resistivity method were used to determine the critica temperature T
of these compounds using liquid nitrogen cryostat
the compounds prepared at [790,830,860 and 890]. C°Showed Tc volues of [89, 101.5,121.0 and85]k respective and the values of Oxygen content is[6.25,6.43,6.51,and6.75]
The change of TC values can be explained on the basis that increasing the sintering temperature produces a more uniform crystal structure and an increased oxygen content in the compound .

Designing the Current and Voltage Measuring Instrument for the Impressed Current Cathodic Protection

Mudfar A. AL-Nemaa; Sura G. Hamdoon; Sura S. Najeb

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.40123

The buried underground or underwater metallic parts suffer from the chemical or hydrochemical corrosion effect.In this paper the later effect will be studied that is caused by the current generated between the metal parts ( the positive pole ) and the ground( the negative pole)through water or the wet soil.The flowing current will change the iron molecules in to positive ions which react with oh ions and cause the rust (ferric hydroxide)of chemical symbol Fe(OH)3.By the supply of an external DC the generated current will stop from flowing between the metal and ground since the positive pole will be neutralized and then become negative.For designing the cathodic protection it is necessary to measure the created currents and voltage causing corrosion according to the soil environment condition therefore the soil test is the main factor for the design purposes.This work will help in knowing the size of the station generating current and voltage that is locally required directly at the site after taking the measurements by the suggested designed instruments in the paper for this purpose, as shown in the data taken practically.

Capability of preparation of ceramic floor and wall tiles from Iraqi raw materials

Sawsan Hamid Al-Hazaa

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 11-24
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.40776

Ceramic wall and floor tiles which compiled to the Iraqi Standards no. 1704/6/1997 and 1704/5/1997 were prepared from local raw materials. These raw materials are Amij kaolinitic clay ,bentonite clay or Safra Beds in Western Desert and alluvial sand of Euphrates River from Al-Ramadi Town in addition cullet from the Factory of Ceramic and Glass in Al-Ramadi..12 mixes were prepared having different mixtures from the raw material above and fired at 1050C˚,1100C˚ and 1150C˚ The result shows that some of the mixtures did not comply with the standards above and some are complied. The optimum condition and mixes witch comply the standards above are D2 (69% Amij kaolinitic clay, 1% bentonite,20% river sand and 10% cullet) fired at 1100C˚ and C3(60% Amij kaolinitic clay, 2% bentonite ,23% river sand and 15%cullet) fired at 1150C˚

Study of the effect of temperature on the electrical conductivity properties of the alloy Fe0.70-xVxAl0.30

Rosure Borhanalden Abdulrahman

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 48-57
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.40777

Been studied the influence of temperature on the electrical conductivity properties of the alloy samples Fe0.70-xVxAl0.30 manner, and processed electric arc furnaces, which enters as an additive component vanadium concentration of extenuating equal to (0.02 and 0.06 and 0.10 and 0.20 and 0.30) in the Over the temperature was 300K to 500K to calculate the values of activation energy and determine the type of electric charge carriers. The measurements showed that the connectivity of the samples increases electrical conductivity, up from both the temperature and the concentration of vanadium element in the alloy, it was noted that the energies of these samples in the revitalization of different values, which indicates the existence of different mechanisms for the delivery of which was becoming increasing temperature and values less than the values of the energy gap, shown the results of the measurements that the electrons are the majority of the positive electric load in the samples.

Effect of four different water sources on growth and yield for two bread wheat varieties Triticum astevum L.

Abdullah Yassen; Zakaria. M. Mohammed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 58-71
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.40779

This study was conducted during winter season of 2007-2008 in one of Al-Madhooriya village fields of section 13 Haweeja Al-Ulia (upper Haweeja), Karkuk to investigate the effect of four different water sources available in the area on growth and yield of two bread wheat varieties (Abu-Ghraib72 and Sham 6).
A split plot design been followed with three replications. The main plots represented by the varieties while the four water sources (Water from Kirkuk Irrigation Project, Well water of 100 m depth, Well water of 60 m depth and Water from Haweeja Irrigation Project) represented the sub plot.
Results showed significant differences between the two varieties in plant height, spike length and weight of 1000 grains and this might be genetically related characteristics and reflex the varietal differences, at the mean time, no such differences been observed in grain/spike, grain yield (kg/ha) and harvest index which refer to that both varieties are suitable to the area. The results also showed significant differences among the type of irrigation waters in all measured parameters, and the water from Karkuk Irrigation Project was greater in all these parameters. The combination of Abu-Ghraib72 variety with water from Karkuk Irrigation Project predominated other combinations in plant height and spike length while Sham 6 variety with water from Karkuk Irrigation Project predominated in grain/spike, weight of 1000 grains, grain yield and harvest index.
There were no significant differences between Well water of 100 m depth and Water from Haweeja Irrigation Project in grain yield with Abu-Ghraib72 variety, and the same thing with Sham 6 variety between Well water of 60 m depth and Water from Haweeja Irrigation Project regardless yield difference between the two varieties.
This study indicated to the fact that Abu-Ghraib72 variety is more resistant to the type of irrigation waters than Sham 6, and that there is no difference between Well water of 60 m depth and Water from Haweeja Irrigation Project in most measured parameters with Sham 6.
It has been noticed positive correlation between the grain yield and all of other studied parameters and less correlation coefficient between harvest index and each of plant height and spike length which means higher plants or longest spike not necessarily leads to higher yield or higher biomass and then higher harvest index.
This Study confirmed the necessity of irrigation with water from Karkuk Irrigation Project for both Abu-Ghraib72 and Sham 6 varieties and it is possible to irrigate Abu-Ghraib72 variety with well water of 60 m depth and water from Haweeja Irrigation Project

Efficiency evaluation of some insecticides in protecting sycamore wood from termite infestation microcerotermes diversus silv.(Isoptra:Termitidae)

Zakaria. M. Mohammed; Abdullah Yassen

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 72-80
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.40781

The toxicity study results of Chemosbane %40.8 E.C, Chlorovite %48 E.C, Demone %25.3 E.C, Dursbane %40.8 E.C, Rigente %50 Sc, and Tirmedor %25 E.C, Insecticides on termite workers (Microcerotermes diversus Silv.) revealed that tirmedor and Chlorovite exhibt a superior toxicity effect on termite in comparison with the other tested insecticides and their LC50 reached 0.0031, 0.0035 respectively. Tirmedor also showed a high efficiency in protecting sycamore wood (Platanus orientalis) for 15 months from termite infestation with %80 mortality in termite workers. The expansion of wood protection period from termite infestation achieved by increasing insecticides concentration and using wood imersion method instead of wood spraying method.

Geochemical Evaluation of Heavy Metals Pollution of Industrial Quarter Soils at Kirkuk City .Northern Iraq

Hassan A. A.AL-Jumaily

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.40784

The study is concerned with geochemical evaluation of heavy metals pollution in Kirkuk soil, northern Iraq. Samples were collected from twenty – eight locations of surface soils at Kirkuk industrial quarter. The results obtained from heavy metals determination in this study showed that the concentration of Pb ranged from 71 to 433 mg/kg, Ni concentration was from 49 to 285mg/kg, Zn ranged from 32to 186 mg/kg, Cd, Cr and Cu were in the range from 1.0 to 4.9 mg/kg, 15 to 198 mg/kg and 24 to 182 mg/kg respectively. Variance coefficients revealed that one group of metals affected by anthropogenic pollution. Principal component analysis extracted two major components: PC1 with high loading of Cd , Pb ,Ni , and Cr is suggested to be the result of industrial activities and PC2 with contribution of Zn and Cu due to use of soil constituent processes or anthropogenic influences . Assessment of environmental state of soil by means of geochemical load indices (GLI) calculated for each metal showed that concentration of heavy metals were great in elements Pb (2.1) and Cd (3.55) show moderately to high pollution at Kirkuk industrial quarter soil .

Determined the parameters effected on sensitivity and lower limit detection of XRF–WDS for different metals particles suspended in engine oil.

Selma M. H. Al-Jawad

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 12-19
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.40785

In this work Different weight of pure Copper,Nickel,Cobalt and Iron fine powders were blended carefully with engine Oil.X-ray fluorescence system was operated at 30KV and 17mA,the XRF intensities of Kα lines for all samples were measured at the peak and at background.The Lower Limit detection (LLD) and Sensitivity (m) of XRF Spectrometer were determined for different metal particles with different Concentrations (Wt%).The results of LLD and sensitivity of all suspended samples were plotted as a function of concentration , and the average values of LLD and m were calculated and plotted as a function of atomic number of metal particles suspended in engine oil.

Antibacterial activity of Quercus infectoria extracts against bacterial isolated from wound infection

Suhaila N. Darogha

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 20-30
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.40787

This study determines the nature of microbial wound colonization in191 patients with wound infection attending Internal Lab of Teaching Hospital and Emergency Hospital in Erbil city during the period 1-January-2007 to31-July-2007.A total of 241 bacterial isolates were identified after culturing the swabs on different culture media. The results indicated that the most frequent isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (32.78%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24.90%) , Escherichia coli(14.94%), Enterobacter spp. (9.96%), Proteus mirabilis (8.71%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.64%) ,Klebsiella oxytoca (1.24%) and Citrobacter freundii (0.83%). Most of the isolates showed high level resistance to commonly available antibiotic. The present study also undertaken to assess the antimicrobial effect of aqueous,methanol and ethanol extracts of Quercus infectoria on the isolated bacterial species.The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ethanolic extract on Staphylococcus aureus was 3.125 mg/ml and that effect on Escherichia coli,Klebsiella pneumoniae and Citrobacte freundii were 6.25 mg/ml while the aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts had effect at 25.0,12.5 and 6.25 mg/ml respectively on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumonia respectively.

Spectrophotometeric Determination of Bromate in Bread By the Oxidation of Dyes

Narmeen S. Abdulla; Media A. Hassan

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 31-39
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.40790

Potssium bromate (KBrO3) is an oxidizing agent that has been used as a food additive , mainly in the bread making process. Amethod is proposed for the determination of bromate based on the oxidation of congo red and crystal violet dyes in a hydrochloric acid medium .Application of spectroscopy for determining bromate in bread was described , fifteen samples of bread , made from flour treated with potassium bromate , was collected from different regions in Hawler, Iraq. The residual bromate level in the analyzed bread samples were in the range from 6.66mg/L to 67.45mg/L The accuracy and precision of the method are discussed.

Optical Illusion and the Magnetic Hills in Koya Region (Kurdistan-Iraq)

Perykhan M.Jaf

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 40-47
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.40794

A few of so-called magnetic hills that appear in some regions of Kurdistan-Iraq were studied.These kinds of hills are downhill but look like an uphill slope and have names like(Hunted Hill),(Magnetic Hill) or(Anti-gravity Hill)in literatures,reflecting attribution of the properties of the area as supernatural or magnetism. The gravity, magnetic field and the slope of the hills has been calculated.We investigated that no supernatural forces found at work in these places and the slope of these two hills are optical illusions produced by the local topography that makes a downhill to look like an uphill slope.

Semi-Essential Submodules and Semi-Uniform Modules

Ali S. Mijbass; Nada K. Abdullah

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 48-58
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.40796

In this work,we give generalizations for the concepts essential submodule and uniform module.We call an R-submodule N of M semi-essential if N∩P≠0 for each nonzero prime R- submodule P of M, and we call an R- module M semi - uniform if every nonzero R-submodule N of M is semi-essential. Moreover, we generalize some properties of essential R-submodules to semi-essential R-submodules,and we generalize some properties of uniform R-modules to semi-uniform R-module. We also give conditions under them an R-submodule N of a multiplication R- module M becomes semi- essential. Furthermore, we give some conditions under them an R-module M satisfies ACC(DCC) on semi-essential R-submodules.

Rings Over Which Certain Modules Are YJ-Injective

Abdullah M. Abdul-Jabbar

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 59-69
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.40800

In this paper we continue to study the concept of YJ-injectivity which was first introduced by Ming in 1985. Furthermore, we give some characterizations and properties for it. Also, we give a sufficient condition for right weakly -regular ring to be strongly -regular. Finally, we give other results of SYJ-rings and connect it with other types of rings such as weakly -regular, reduced ring and strongly regular ring.

Climatic conditions effects on formation and development status of some soils in northern part of Iraq/Kurdistan region

Salim Neimat Aziz; Ahmed Saleh muhaimeed; Ibrahim M.Amin

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 70-86
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.40806

Two biolit areas were selected within different climatic conditions in northern Iraq (Kurdistan region). Four pedons located in Ibraheemawa and five pedon in Salehaga areas. The two locationswere used for rain feed crop production. The two areas was covered with a detailed soil survey . Mapping units were obtained from Al-Agidi proposed soil classification at the series level for the Iraqi alluvial & zonal soils.Nine pedons representing the most extensive dominant soil series within the two locations were selected. A complete soil characterization was made for each soil series which include, PSD, ECe, Lime, O.M, active lime, PH, C.E.C, B.S.P, and C.E. to reveal their genesis (formations & development). Characterization was made preceded by morphological studies .The results show that a great effects of climatic conditions on the status of soil development reflected by horizons type , soil thickness and type of diagnostic horizons including surface and sub surface horizons . Also the results clearly showed the effects of climatic conditions on the amount and pattern of distribution for most soil components .The studied pedons at Ibrahimawa region were more developed than those at Salehaga region due to the difference in climatic conditions.

Effect of polarity and steric on the rate addition of free radicals to Alkenes

Najla.J. Khalil; Mostafa.R. Aeyd

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2009, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 25-34
DOI: 10.32894/kujss.2009.41074

In this investigation, the effective factors on the addition rate for hydroxy methyl and cynomethyl free radicals to some alkenes have been studied using quantum mechanics methods. Where in this study, physical properties like the electron density on the two carbon atoms which participate in the free radical addition on alkene has been studied. These two carbon atoms are: the one which hold the single electron in the free radical and the second which is the unsubstituted carbon in the alkene. Also, the energy level HOMO, LUMO and SOMO have been calculated. In addition, the relations between the log of the addition rate constant of the free radical into the alkene and the electronic properties mentioned above have been investigated. The results have shown that the polarity, ionization potential, the energy levels HOMO & LUMO and the steric hinderance are the main effective factors in the determination of the addition rate constant for the free radicals into the alkenes