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Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies KUJSS is a scientific, open access and refereed journal published since 2006 by the College of Science, Kirkuk University,  Kirkuk, Iraq. It publishes experimental and theoretical papers in the field of pure science and engineering, in English or Arabic. Manuscript shall be considered for publication only with the understanding that they are neither under concurrent consideration by any journal nor have been published elsewhere. We are using iThenticate software to check the originality of the submitted works for potential plagiarism. Manuscripts...
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The Effect of Sunspots Number on the Total Electron Content (TEC) of the Ionospheric Layer E Over Kirkuk Station for Solar Cycle 24

Wafaa Zaki; Rwziah Mahmood Mohammed; Jawdet Hidayat

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2020, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 1-17
DOI: http://doi.org/10.32894/kujss.2020.15.1.1

In this work, the effect of sunspots number (Ri) on the Total electronic content (TEC) were studied for the years (2008, 2014, 2018) which represents the rising phase, the peak and the down phase of the solar cycle 24 over Kirkuk station in Iraq at latitude 35° North and longitude 44° East, by finding the TEC values for the E – layer, the layer’s impression times are determined for the days of solstice and equinox. In this study the International Reference Ionosphere program (IRI) program have been applied to find the values of TEC which provided by the space research committee (COSPAR) and International Union of Radio Sciences (URSI), IRI have three upper side electron density options. The accuracy of this study was verified by the application conducted of the university of Hacettepe in Ankara, Turkey by matching the reading of TEC from Global Position System (GPS) with output data of TEC from the IRI for Ankara station which located at (39.7 N;32.76 E). And from this investigation turns out that the output data from the option IRI2001 was more consistent with reading of the GPS, than the rest of the other options. From this study by using the statistical program Minitab version 2018. There is a strong correlation between the Total Electron Content (TEC) of Ionospheric layer E and Sunspot number for solar cycle 24.

Two Stage Text Encryption Using a Private Table of the Sumerian System

Elham Hassan Aziz

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2020, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 18-33
DOI: http://doi.org/10.32894/kujss.2020.15.1.2

The massive use of the internet in our contemporary life relates to the increase of the exchange of information through the Internet networks. Due to the importance of the information and to preserve its confidentiality, it protects using theories as well as strategies from attack or abuse. The aim of the research is to design an algorithm to encrypt text symbols to understandable symbols using private table that contains representation of ASCII of English characters with their suitable Sumerian system numbers. Each letter of the text is converted to ASCII code then encoded as an image using the private table, After that these images are combined together and saved as a new image as a Sumerian image. This image is encrypted first with unintelligible key image that is generated from three external key’s (kr, kg, and kb) to be the first stage encryption image. Then the second stage image generates from encrypting the first stage image with another input key image using XOR function which increases image security. The proposed algorithm gives double stage encryption and high degree of security level because of using Sumerian system and using different keys and security methods. Through using the histograms on all tested images, the result image demonstrate the efficiency of the system visually.

Assessment of Levels of Elements Concentrations (Pb, As, Cr) in Groundwater and its Environmental Impacts in the Yaychi Region, Kirkuk / Northern Iraq

Dunya N. Hasseb; Hassan A. Al-Jumaily

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2020, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 34-52
DOI: http://doi.org/10.32894/kujss.2020.15.1.3

The present study aims to assess the pollution of groundwater with toxic heavy elements and their carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects on health in the study area. For this purpose, 5 samples of groundwater wells were taken and analyzed for their content of the elements (Pb, As, Cr) using the ICP-MS device in the ACME laboratory in Vancouver / Canada. The results of these five wells showed that their concentrations rates increased according to the following order Pb> Cr> As, as they reached 45.34, 11.8, and 0.74 µg l-1, respectively, and the lead, arsenic and chromium levels in the five samples were within the permitted ranges according to FAO standards, the spatial distribution of the three elements showed that the lead concentration in groundwater was high in the eastern regions, which may be due to the impact of vehicle emissions and agricultural activities, while arsenic and chromium concentrations were high in the central and southwestern regions of the study area, which may be attributed to the effects of agricultural and industrial activities. And it was found by applying the indicators of heavy elements pollution (MI, HPI) and health risk factors that the five wells under study are not contaminated to low pollution with these elements respectively, and do not pose any carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks to the population of the study area of adults and children through skin contact pathway.

Improvement of the Efficiency of the Fungicide Dithane M-45 By the Use of the Polysaccharide for the Control of Fungi Causing Damping off of Okra (Ablelmoschus Esculentus L)

Doha Ismaeel Ibraheem

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2020, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 53-67
DOI: http://doi.org/10.32894/kujss.2020.15.1.4

Laboratory tests of three fungicides, dithane M-45 (mancozeb), captan 50 and rhizolexwith four concentrations each 0.0, 50, 100 and 200 mg active inegradient/l of Potato DextroseAgar (PDA) medium on the growth of fungi Macrophomina phasealina 2 isolates of Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agents of damping off and root rot ofokra, Dithane M-45 showed high inhibition (100%) effect for the mycelial growth of pathogenic fungi at 100 mg a.c/l PDA. Treating okra (Ablelmoschus esculentus) seeds (localcultivar) by various concentrations of dithane M-45 (0.0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0) gm/kg seeds withthe microbial polysaccharide produced by the fungus Alternaria alternata or Arabic gum (5gm/l distilled water) was superior than the fungicide alone through all the treatments incausing significant decrease in % infection and disease severity of the seeding damping offdisease at conc. 3 gm/kg seeds with the polysaccharide which gave 4 %, 5.33 % and 0.07respectively and 8.7 %, 10.0 % and 0.15 with the arabic gum respectively. There were nosignificant differences noticed between the treatment of the seeds with the polysaccharidewith the arabic gum in reducing% infection and disease severity of the disease. Also, it causedsignificant increase in the length of shoot and root systems and dry weight of the plants whichreached 16.33 cm, 6.04 cm and 0.0204 gm at 3 gm/kg seeds with the polysaccharide and13.91 cm, 4,99 cm and 0.144 gm for arabic gum respectively as compared with the treatmentby the fungicide dithane M-45 alone (without sticking material) which gave 11.95 cm, 3.95cm and 0.124 gm respectively.

Assessment of Suitability of Injana Formation Sandstone for Building and Railway Ballast Stone in Shirqat District Sallahaddin Government- Iraq

Mohanad Essa Khder; Loay Musa Rawe; Hasnaa Salah Khalaf

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2020, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 68-84
DOI: http://doi.org/10.32894/kujss.2020.15.1.5

This study aims the validity of INJANA sandstone formation rocks exposed in the Sallahaddin government / shirqat district for building purposes and railway ballast stone. The study including sampling from three stations and prepared samples for laboratory tests which revealed that values of unconfined compressive strength, flexural strength, density, absorption and mechanical absorption ranges between (7.97-12.28) MPa, (3.71-4.74) MPa, (1.75-1.82) gm/cm3 , (1.13-1.16) %, and (82.3-89.2) % , respectively.The geotechnical test shows that the sandstone rocks are not suitable for dimensions stone purposes expected station (1) according to (ASTM, C-568-99,2004) and not suitable for railway ballast stone purposes according to (O.R.B.D 1999 Raymond1979).

Oocyte development in liza abu

Gazwa. D. Al-Nakeeb; Mukhtar. Kh. Haba

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 53-41

Khishni fish Liza abu were collected from Tigris river to study oocyte development in this fish .Present study showed that the oogenesis process include seven stages divided according to cell size,chromatin matter and vitellogenesis .The first stage represent as Oogonia,the second is Early oocyte,the third is Multinucleated stage,then Yolk nucleus stage (indicator to beginning of vitillogenesis),followed by primary and secondary stages and lastly Maturation stage

Study of Pollution in Heavy Metals and Some Physico-Chemical Variables of Wastes Water from Kirkuk City Hospitals

Kameran.Sh.Hussein; Theiab.G. Hussein; Sarhan. A.salman; Abdullah.S.Kazael

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2018, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 230-252

The selection was made on a number of hospitals to conduct a study on the quality of the water. The samples were taken before and after treatment from three hospitals in the city of Kirkuk, Kirkuk General Hospital, Azadi Educational Hospital and Children's Hospital. The samples were collected at regular intervals Six months from September (2016) to February (2017) . The first phase, which included the measurement of some physical variables and chemical variables, included physical measurements, temperature measurement, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (T.D.S), (T.S.S), all of which were above the permissible limit, except for the temperature. Chemical analyzes included (pH), (BOD) and (COD),(SO4-2), (PO4-3) and(NO3). The results of the study indicated that the applications were characterized by the rise of most chemical standards, most of which exceeded environmental determinants except (SO4-2) , and (pH), within the limits allowed for Iraqi specifications, and the second phase of the study, to demonstrate the extent of contamination of heavy elements, and included the measurement of the study of heavy elements: (Fe, Cd, Cr) The availability of cadmium and chromium, at concentrations higher than is permitted, while the concentration of iron elements was less than the limit allowed globally and locally, and the study used the research method And statistical analysis of data from wastewater models studied

Design of the illumination system in the field emission Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

Mohammed Abdullah Hussein; Faez Ahmed Mohammed

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2017, Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 287-296

The main goal of This Work is to survey the field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) to obtain on the optimal design for illumination system. The SEM optical column contains of illumination system that form a focused beam by electrons are released and animated to incident on the specimen surface, this backscattered electrons from the specimen surfaces, finally forming an image. mainly the optical column include a field emission source as the beam source, illumination system, electron control unit, and unit the vacuum. use of a finite element analyses in the design process of the SEM ingredient to be optimally determined. By the analysis we can predict the beam emission characteristics and relevant trajectories were predicted from the analysis of the present work from which a systematic design of the electron optical system is enabled.

Ectopic Ureteric orifices with Bilateral Duplicated Collecting System

Muhammad Abdullah Rahman alshwani

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2013, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1-5

Ectopic ureter occurs three times more commonly in females than in males. More than 80% of female ectopic ureters involve duplicated systems, while the majority of male ectopic ureters are of a single system , this rare case of ectopic ureteric orifice was diagnosed in 10 year old female child who presented with continuous dribbling of urine day and night ,after clinical examination together with Intravenousurography and cystoscopic examination the final diagnosis of bilateral complete duplicated system with unusual ectopic four ureteric orifices was settled .

Using selection index technique for improvement of yield and its components in durum wheat

Ghaadh. T. Abdulla

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2007, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 52-66

Eight varieties of durum wheat (Leeds, Waha, Um Rabie5, Azegar1, Um Rabie3, Brashua, Cyprus1 and Korfila) and their half diallel crosses were used in this study to construct several selection indices and calculate the gains expected in the yield. It was revealed that the selection index constructed from plant yield, number of spikes plant, number of tillers and harvest index had the highest increase in the efficiency (5.75%) as compared with direct selection for yield. This indicate that a selection index based on combination of characters, including yield, would have an advantage of practical significance over selection based on yield only. This index considered the superior due to it’s high efficiency and constructed of lowest number of characters. By the estimation of the eight varieties selection index values, it was found that Um Rabie5 had the best value, then Um Rabie3 and Azegar1 consequently.

Inhibitory Effect of Aqueous Extract of Pomegranate Peel on Escherichia

Sohaib Sabah Al-Salihi

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2014, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 11-18

This study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory activities of the aqueous extract of pomegranate peel on a pathogenic isolates of E.coli had multi-resistance characteristic against antibiotics. Twenty pathological isolates of E.coli were taken from the laboratory of the Kirkuk Children’s Hospital and confirmation of these isolates was done by using diagnostic methods. The results of the antibiotics sensitivity test showed that all isolates were resistant to AMC , CRO and PY 100% , while no one of them showing any resistance to CN, IPM and these isolates possessed multiple resistance patterns to the antibiotics from three to six antibiotics and the pattern of the resistanc ( AMC , CRO , PY) was more common among the isolates on other hand, the results indicated that all isolates sensitized 100% to the concentration 100 mg / ml and 50 mg / ml of the aqueous extract and 25% were sensitized to the concentration of 25 mg / ml, while did not show any inhibitory in the concentration of 12.5%.

The Kinetic Study of Adenosine Deaminase Activity in Renal Failure Patients

Lutfia M. Hassan; Parween A. Ismahail

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2011, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 80-89

Serum adenosine deaminase levels was measured in patients with acute renal failure and compare them with the results of healthy individuals. Serum adenosine deaminase levels were found to be significantly higher in patient with acute renal failure than in healthy individuals (63±20.1U/L) and (28±9.2IU/L), respectively. The study was carried in optimum pH value (6.5) and optimum temperature 37ć by which enzyme possess highest activity, the activation energy (Ea) of the reaction (ES-Complex) formation was estimated.

Taxonomic study of Brachynema virens (Klug, 1845) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Kurdistan region - raq.

Nabeel A. Mawlood; Banaz S.Abdulla; Mudhafar I. Hamad

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2016, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 131-137

This study deals with taxonomy of Brachynema virens(Klug, 1845)which collected from different localities of Kurdistan region-Iraq, including Erbil, Suleimanya and Duhok Governorates from the mid of April to the end of August2014.Some important parts ,metathorax scent gland, male and female genitalia have been illustrated and drawn .The results showed that the evaporatoria metathoracic scent gland well defined ;pygophore slightly longer than broad; paramere somewhat T-shaped; Spermathecal bulb round, without finger-like processes.Localities, date of collection and host plants were mentioned.

A New Technique to Compute Complex Roots

Sasan A. Muheadden

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2010, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 104-113

In this paper we modified Newton – Raphson and Secant methods to Complex form, then from that we get new iterative formula to them, named Newton (Secant) real iteration formula and Newton (Secant) imaginary iteration formula, real iteration used to find real roots while imaginary iteration one will be used to find complex roots of non- linear equations such as ( ). To find real roots, we start with a real initial point in real iteration getting a sequence of real numbers, to find complex roots start with a complex initial point in complex formula getting a sequence of complex numbers, also we write a new algorithm for this technique and write the program by using Matlab application system version 7.8 for this new method such that it will determine the real roots when we enter the initial real point but when we enter the initial complex point it will determine the complex roots.


Nazar. S. AL- Zuheary

Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies, 2008, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 47-58

Factorial mating desiing involoing Four lines OF maize (Agr183 . w13R. W17.161 and R153) used as males and other five live lines (OH40. IK58. IK8. ZP and DK) used as females. The nine lines and crosses among them were planted using ACBDesing with three replications and data taken for traits: number of ears per plant length ead diamerer number of rows per ear ; number ofgrains per row 100 grain weight and grain yield per plant M arked significant heterosis was observed for almost al the traits examined lt was shown plant Marked significant heterosis was observed for almost al the traits examined lt was shown that nonadditive gene action was more important in the inheritance of all traits Among males (R153) and among femaler (lk8) were the best general combinors for the most of traits and the cross (W13RxZP)was the best specific combinor .

Publisher: Kirkuk University

Email:  kujss@uokirkuk.edu.iq

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Ali Hussein Taqi

Print ISSN: 1992-0849

Online ISSN: 2616-6801

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